[67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. [5] The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. [48] Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. [36] Two columns were swallowed up in the medieval buildings that abutted the Pantheon on the east and were lost. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=992354073, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44. Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. [1], In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",[23] that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"[24] and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. [51] The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. ISBN 0-521-84202-6 Loewenstein, Karl. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. 1676 x 1200 jpeg 773kB. The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. On the vault are several 17th-century canvases, from left to right: Cumean Sibyl by Ludovico Gimignani; Moses by Francesco Rosa; Eternal Father by Giovanni Peruzzini; David by Luigi Garzi; and Eritrean Sibyl by Giovanni Andrea Carlone. [citation needed], The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. Le temple et la coupole ronde caractéristique actuels ont été construits au deuxième siècle sous lempereur Hadrien, après que la bâtiment ait été endommagé par un grand incendie en 80 A.D.par un énorme incendie et que la foudre déclencha un nouvel incendie en 110. Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. traveldigg.com. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. Le mot « panthéon » peut désigner trois notions différentes : . Die digter Giuseppe Gioachino Belli (1791−1863), 'n boorling van Rome, het een van sy «Romeinse sonette» aan La Rotonna gewy. As a result of excavations in the late 19th century, archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani concluded that Agrippa's Pantheon was oriented so that it faced south, in contrast with the current layout that faces north, and that it had a shortened T-shaped plan with the entrance at the base of the "T". Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. [47] After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. 4 nov. 2016 - Pantheon panorama, Rome - 6 - Panthéon (Rome) — Wikipédia The Governance of Rome. In the early 17th century, Urban VIII Barberini tore away the bronze ceiling of the portico, and replaced the medieval campanile with the famous twin towers (often wrongly attributed to Bernini[37]) called "the ass's ears",[38] which were not removed until the late 19th century. Today, it is not known what gods were included. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. Revenir à la page « Panthéon (Rome) ». [27] How the building was actually used is not known. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). English: An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. They also organize picket guards at the tombs. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials. In 202, the building was repaired by the joint emperors Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla (fully Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), for which there is another, smaller inscription on the architrave of the façade, under the aforementioned larger text. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. [8] His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building. The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli. [51] Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison[53] found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. [45] The grey granite columns that were actually used in the Pantheon's pronaos were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern mountains. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. ; Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple, magnifiquement conservé, de l'Antiquité romaine, dédié à tous les dieux. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Panthéon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. colosseumrometickets.com. 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 6 février 2020 à 11:23. [13] In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings (or perhaps temple cellae) should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, and because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity (27.25.7–10). J.-C). On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. [61], Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). "[33] Twenty-eight cartloads of holy relics of martyrs were said to have been removed from the catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. [57] The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. Jump to navigation Jump to search. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. This image is published on Wikipedia Commons by Martin Olsson under the GFDL license. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. [69], The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on;[70] starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. The best known of such structures is the Pantheonof Rome, first built by Marcus Agrippaas part of a complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martiusin 29–19 BC. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens. Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple romain situé sur la Piazza della Rotonda, à Rome, en plein cœur historique.Son nom vient des mots grecs pan (tout) et theios (divin), que l'on peut traduire par "tous les dieux" .. Historique [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. Autres résolutions : 320 × 208 pixels | 640 × 415 pixels | 1 024 × 664 pixels | 1 280 × 831 pixels | 3 218 × 2 088 pixels. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. The altar with the royal arms is by Cirilli. Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. [60], Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. [16] The former would help explain how the building could have so easily lost its original name and purpose (Ziolkowski contends that it was originally the Temple of Mars in Campo)[17] in such a relatively short period of time.[18]. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Die plein buite die Panteon dra dieselfde naam - Piazza della Rotonda. It was originally built as a temple to the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt about 126 AD during Hadrian 's reign. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. Le Panthéon est un monument de style néo-classique situé dans le 5 e arrondissement de Paris.Au cœur du Quartier latin, sur la montagne Sainte-Geneviève, il est au centre de la place du Panthéon et entouré notamment de la mairie du 5 e arrondissement, du lycée Henri-IV, de l'église Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, de la bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève et de la faculté de droit. 1869 x 1301 jpeg 824kB. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. [34] On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.[35]. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. "[28] Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.[29].